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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and impact on mortality of repeat revascularization after index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). BACKGROUND: The impact on mortality of the need of repeat revascularization following PCI or CABG in patients with unprotected LMCAD is unknown. METHODS: All patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) scores randomized to PCI (n = 948) or CABG (n = 957) in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial were included. Repeat revascularization events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The effect of repeat revascularization on mortality through 3-year follow-up was examined in time-varying Cox regression models. RESULTS: During 3-year follow-up, there were 346 repeat revascularization procedures among 185 patients. PCI was associated with higher rates of any repeat revascularization (12.9% vs. 7.6%; hazard ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 2.33; p = 0.0003). Need for repeat revascularization was independently associated with increased risk for 3-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 3.70; p = 0.02) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.22; 95% confidence interval: 2.10 to 8.48; p < 0.0001) consistently after both PCI and CABG (pint = 0.85 for both endpoints). Although target vessel revascularization and target lesion revascularization were both associated with an increased risk for mortality, target vessel non-target lesion revascularization and non-target vessel revascularization were not. CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, repeat revascularization during follow-up was performed less frequently after CABG than PCI and was associated with increased mortality after both procedures. Reducing the need for repeat revascularization may further improve long-term survival after percutaneous or surgical treatment of LMCAD. (EXCEL Clinical Trial; NCT01205776).

Original publication




Journal article


JACC Cardiovasc Interv

Publication Date





375 - 387


CABG, PCI, left main coronary artery, repeat revascularization