Applicability of intermittent global ischemia for repeat coronary artery operations.
Taggart DP., Aratari C., Wong P., Paul EA., Wright JE.
Despite the increasing popularity of cardioplegic techniques there is no consensus as to the optimal myocardial protective technique for first-time or repeat coronary artery bypass grafting. Intermittent global ischemia was used in 159 consecutive patients (142 male; 17 female) undergoing repeat coronary artery bypass grafting during a 6-year period (1987 to 1992). The median age of the patients was 60 years (90% confidence interval: 47 to 70 years) and the median interval from the first operation was 9 years (90% confidence interval: 2 to 14 years). One third of the patients required emergency (within 24 hours) or urgent (within 7 days) operations because of failure of symptoms to resolve with medical therapy. Compared with events at the initial operation there was an increased prevalence of impaired ventricular function (ejection fraction < 50%) and increased use of the internal thoracic artery (48% versus 9%). Two of 12 patients who required emergency operations died in the hospital, which resulted in an overall mortality rate at 30 days of 1%. Intraaortic balloon pump support was required in five patients (3%) and cardiac dose inotropic support in 21% of patients for up to 24 hours after operation. There was definite electrocardiographic evidence of infarction in 11 patients (7%). The mean postoperative blood loss, without aprotinin, was 627 ml (standard deviation 327 ml) and two patients required reexploration because of bleeding. Five patients had a hemiparesis (3%) and a further four patients (3%) had a mild or transient postoperative focal neurologic deficit. The median postoperative hospital stay was 9 days (90% confidence interval: 7 to 20 days) although 10% of patients required a hospital stay in excess of 21 days. No patient was lost to follow-up. The median (and interquartile range) period of follow-up was 1.6 (1 to 3) years. Eight patients died in the follow-up period, which resulted in an estimated survival of 80% at 5 years. At a mean follow-up period of 2 years (and with or without antianginal medication) 83% of patients had no or minimal angina, 12% had angina on moderate exertion, and 5% had angina on minimal exertion. In comparison with other current series of repeat coronary revascularization our results suggest that repeat coronary artery bypass grafting can be done with intermittent global ischemia with early and intermediate results at least equivalent to those obtained with cardioplegic methods.