The multiple effects of aspirin in prostate cancer patients.
Joshi SN., Murphy EA., Olaniyi P., Bryant RJ.
Aspirin is a commonly used medication with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and it is widely used to reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease-related events and/or cerebrovascular accidents. However, there is also evidence from epidemiological and interventional studies to suggest that regular aspirin use can reduce the risk of prostate cancer development and progression, and can reduce the risk of disease recurrence following anti-prostate cancer therapy. Aspirin use in African-American men is associated with a reduced incidence of advanced PCa and reduced disease recurrence, and there is evidence from other studies of an association between regular aspirin use and decreased PCa-related mortality. The cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibited by Aspirin and other NSAIDs, and which catalyses prostaglandin synthesis and mediates inflammation, is overexpressed in prostate cancer, therefore inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 may have direct, and indirect, therapeutic effects. This review explores the evidence suggesting that aspirin use can modify prostate cancer biology and disease characteristics, and explores the potential mechanisms underpinning the observed associations between aspirin use and modification of prostate cancer risk. It also summarises the potential for adjuvant aspirin use to combine with other therapeutic approaches such as radical surgery and radiotherapy.