The Interplay Between Prostate Cancer Genomics, Metabolism, and the Epigenome: Perspectives and Future Prospects.
Singh R., Mills IG.
Prostate cancer is a high-incidence cancer, often detected late in life. The prostate gland is an accessory gland that secretes citrate; an impaired citrate secretion reflects imbalances in the activity of enzymes in the TCA Cycle in mitochondria. Profiling studies on prostate tumours have identified significant metabolite, proteomic, and transcriptional modulations with an increased mitochondrial metabolic activity associated with localised prostate cancer. Here, we focus on the androgen receptor, c-Myc, phosphatase and tensin Homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), and p53 as amongst the best-characterised genomic drivers of prostate cancer implicated in metabolic dysregulation and prostate cancer progression. We outline their impact on metabolic function before discussing how this may affect metabolite pools and in turn chromatin structure and the epigenome. We reflect on some recent literature indicating that mitochondrial mutations and OGlcNAcylation may also contribute to this crosstalk. Finally, we discuss the technological challenges of assessing crosstalk given the significant differences in the spatial sensitivity and throughput of genomic and metabolomic profiling approaches.