Early diagnosis and surgical management of prostate cancer.
Linton KD., Hamdy FC.
Prostate cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and Europe. The natural ageing of the population as well as the continued and widespread use of diagnostic tests such as prostate specific antigen (PSA), has led to an increase in the numbers of men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer. Screening to identify organ-confined disease has provoked much public and scientific attention, but remains controversial. Radical prostatectomy is one of the most challenging urological procedures performed. Improvements in technique due to better understanding of pelvic anatomy have reduced complications, with acceptable standards and excellent results in high-volume institutions. Continual refinements in technique and the recent introduction of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are likely to improve functional outcome further. However the effectiveness of surgery in improving survival and quality of life, in men with early prostate cancer remains to be determined. The results from large randomised controlled trials are eagerly awaited.