Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D protects against prostate cancer, although evidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated associations of circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with prostate specific antigen-detected prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the prostate testing for cancer and treatment (ProtecT) trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) quantifying the association between circulating total 25(OH)D and prostate cancer. In case-only analyses, we used unconditional logistic regression to quantify associations of total 25(OH)D with stage (advanced vs. localized) and Gleason grade (high-grade (≥7) vs. low-grade (<7)). Predetermined categories of total 25(OH)D were defined as: high: ≥30 ng/mL; adequate: 20-<30 ng/mL; insufficient: 12-<20 ng/mL; deficient: <12 ng/mL. Fractional polynomials were used to investigate the existence of any U-shaped relationship. We included 1,447 prostate cancer cases (153 advanced, 469 high-grade) and 1,449 healthy controls. There was evidence that men deficient in vitamin D had a 2-fold increased risk of advanced versus localized cancer (OR for deficient vs. adequate total 25(OH)D=2.33, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.28) and high-grade versus low-grade cancer (OR for deficient vs. adequate total 25(OH)D=1.78, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.77). There was no evidence of a linear association between total 25(OH)D and prostate cancer (p=0.44) or of an increased risk of prostate cancer with high and low vitamin D levels. Our study provides evidence that lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with more aggressive cancers (advanced versus localized cancers and high- versus low-Gleason grade), but there was no evidence of an association with overall prostate cancer risk.

Original publication

DOI

10.1002/ijc.27327

Type

Journal article

Journal

Int J Cancer

Publication Date

01/09/2012

Volume

131

Pages

1187 - 1196

Keywords

Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Case-Control Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Multicenter Studies as Topic, Neoplasm Grading, Neoplasm Staging, Odds Ratio, Prognosis, Prostate, Prostatic Neoplasms, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Assessment, Vitamin D