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Background: Deciphering the mechanisms of tolerance represents a crucial aim of research in transplantation. We previously identified by DNA chip interleukin (IL)-27 p28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 as overexpressed in a model of rat cardiac allograft tolerance mediated by regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells. The role of these two molecules on the control of the inflammatory response remains controversial. However, both are involved in the regulation of the T helper 17/Treg axis, suggesting their involvement in tolerance. Methods: We analyzed regulation of IL-27 and TGF-β1 expression in allograft response and their role in tolerance by using blocking anti-TGF-β antibody and by generating an adeno-associated virus encoding IL-27. Results: Here, we confirmed the overexpression of IL-27 and TGF-β1 in tolerated cardiac allografts in two different rodent models. We observed that their expression correlates with inhibition of T helper 17 differentiation and with expansion of regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells. We showed in a rat model that anti-TGF-β treatment abrogates infectious tolerance mediated by the transfer of regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells. Moreover, overexpression of IL-27 by adeno-associated virus administration in combination with a short-term immunosuppression allows prolongation of cardiac allograft survival and one tolerant recipient. We found that IL-27 overexpression did not induce Foxp3CD4 + CD25 + T-cell expansion but rather IL-10-expressing CD4 + T cells in the tolerant recipient. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that both TGF-β1 and IL-27 play a role in the mechanisms of tolerance. However, in contrast to TGF-β1, IL-27 seems not to be involved in regulatory CD4CD25 T-cell expansion but rather in their mode of action. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Original publication

DOI

10.1097/TP.0b013e31825b0c38

Type

Journal article

Journal

Transplantation

Publication Date

15/08/2012

Volume

94

Pages

226 - 233