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This article updates advances in prostate cancer screening based on prostate-specific antigen, its derivatives, and human kallikrein markers. Many men are diagnosed with indolent disease not requiring treatment. Although there is evidence of a survival benefit from screening, the numbers needed to screen and treat remain high. There is risk of exposing men to the side effects of treatment for nonthreatening disease. A screening test is needed with sufficiently good performance characteristics to detect disease at an early stage so treatment may be offered with curative intent, while reducing the number of negative or unnecessary biopsies.

Original publication




Journal article


Urol Clin North Am

Publication Date





267 - 276


Detection, Kallikreins, PSA, Prostate cancer, Screening, Diagnostic Errors, Early Detection of Cancer, Humans, Male, Mass Screening, Models, Statistical, Prognosis, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms