Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Ross A., Johnson PRV.
© 2016 Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in infants and is one of the most common conditions requiring surgery in the newborn. It arises from marked hypertrophy of the pyloric muscle (primarily circular layer), resulting in partial or complete luminal occlusion. Classically these infants have persistent non-bilious vomiting, are dehydrated with weight loss, and have a hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis. Treatment requires initial careful fluid management before definitive surgical correction. Outcomes are now excellent in developed countries and long-term sequelae are not expected after treatment.