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  • The Royal Society of Medicine
  • British Pharmacological Society
  • The Law Society of England and Wales

Gary Greer

LLB (Hons), PgDipLP, MSc (Oxf)

DPhil Candidate in Surgical Sciences

  • I am a non-practicing solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. I was admitted in 1996.

My research focuses on reporting suspected adverse drug reactions (‘ADRs’) by patients and health care professionals (‘HCPs’).

My research is important in the UK and internationally because ADRs are often serious enough to result in admission to hospital (Pirmohamed et al, 2004) and consultations with General Practitioners (‘GPs’), and they place a significant burden on national (and private sector) health services and account for patient morbidity, mortality, extra costs, and staff resources (Pirmohamed et al, 2004). There are indirect costs for patients and their caregivers that are incurred by ADRs, e.g. missed days from work and/or anxiety due to the ADR(s) episode (Wu and Pantaleo, 2003 cited by Sultana et al, 2013), and ADRs may also trigger prescription cascades when new medications are prescribed for conditions that are a consequence of another medication, which is often an unrecognized ADR (Sultana et al, 2013). My research intends to make recommendations for reform to benefit patients, HCPs, et al, which addresses some/all of the problems caused by ADRs.

The problems in the reporting of ADRs that I will be researching include: under-reporting; the quality of data reported; the extent to which definitive ADRs are under-reported not being known; false positives/negatives created by reported data; difficulties in detecting signals after reports are made; inconsistent standards of reporting; background noise in the reporting databases, which obscures/confuses data that may lead to a signal; and limited incentives for HCPs, and patients to report ADRs to reduce under-reporting. My research intends to investigate the problems through qualitative and quantitative empirical studies and systematic literature reviews, which investigates: what is known; what is unknown; patients and HCPs knowledge, understanding and experiences of reporting suspected ADRs; and factors that affect them/could affect them in making reports.

My research intends to bridge the current gap in scientific knowledge and understanding and make recommendations, which can benefit, in particular, patients, HCPs, and policy makers in worldwide populations, especially, low-middle income countries (The World Bank, 2016) where this unmet human need may be negatively felt the greatest. My research intends to improve the reporting of suspected ADRs by facilitating, in particular: a reduction in morbidity and mortality caused by ADRs; a reduction in the financial and human resource burden on the NHS (and private health services) through a decrease in patient hospital admissions and GP consultations caused by ADRs.

There is substantial scope within suspected ADRs reporting, and ADRs pharmacovigilance generally for future new research projects, and innovation. This is mainly driven by the fact that there is limited research in this relatively new bio-medical science research field.