Ischemia-reperfusion injuries assessment during pancreas preservation
Prudhomme T., Mulvey JF., Young LAJ., Mesnard B., Lo Faro ML., Ogbemudia AE., Dengu F., Friend PJ., Ploeg R., Hunter JP., Branchereau J.
Maintaining organ viability between donation and transplantation is of critical importance for optimal graft function and survival. To date in pancreas transplantation, static cold storage (SCS) is the most widely practiced method of organ preservation. The first experiments in ex vivo perfusion of the pancreas were performed at the beginning of the 20th century. These perfusions led to organ oedema, hemorrhage, and venous congestion after revascularization. Despite these early hurdles, a number of factors now favor the use of perfusion during preservation: the encouraging results of HMP in kidney transplantation, the development of new perfusion solutions, and the development of organ perfusion machines for the lung, heart, kidneys and liver. This has led to a resurgence of research in machine perfusion for whole organ pancreas preservation. This review highlights the ischemia-reperfusion injuries assessment during ex vivo pancreas perfusion, both for assessment in pre-clinical experimental models as well for future use in the clinic. We evaluated perfusion dynamics, oedema assessment, especially by impedance analysis and MRI, whole organ oxygen consumption, tissue oxygen tension, metabolite concentrations in tissue and perfusate, mitochondrial respiration, cell death, especially by histology, total cell free DNA, caspase activation, and exocrine and endocrine assessment.