Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the urinary bladder: the effect of inflammation and edema on identification of malignancy.
Smallwood RH., Keshtkar A., Wilkinson BA., Lee JA., Hamdy FC.
Previous studies have shown that tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements can identify cervical interstitial neoplasia with the same sensitivity and specificity as cervical smears. In the urinary bladder, the same technique yields significant differences (p < 0.05 at seven frequencies between 9.6 and 614 kHz) between normal and malignant urothelium, but is unable to classify individual measurements. Detailed histological examination demonstrates that inflammation and edema--both of which are common in abnormal urothelium--alter the impedance spectrum significantly in opposing directions. Consideration of morphological changes in abnormal urothelium suggests alternative measurement strategies.