Deceased donor kidney degradomics indicate cytoskeletal proteolytic alterations impact post-transplant function.
Vaughan RH., Kresse J., Farmer L., Thezenas M., Kessler BM., Lindeman JHN., Sharples EJ., Welsh G., Norregaard R., Ploeg RJ., Kaisar ME.
Background. In brain death, cerebral injury contributes to systemic biological dysregulation, causing significant cellular stress in donor kidneys that adversely impacts the quality of grafts. Here, we hypothesized that DBD kidneys may undergo proteolytic processes that renders grafts susceptible to post-transplant dysfunction. Material & Methods. Using mass spectrometry and immunoblotting analyses, we profiled degradation patterns of cytoskeletal proteins in deceased (n=55) and living (n=10) donor kidneys. Results. We found that in DBD kidneys, key podocyte cytoskeletal proteins had been proteolytically cleaved. Generated degradation profiles were independent to donor related demographic and clinical factors but were associated to suboptimal post-transplant function. Strikingly, α-actinin -4 and Talin-1 degradation profiles were not observed in circulatory-death or living-donor kidneys. As Talin-1 is a specific proteolytic target of Calpain-1, we investigated a potential trigger of Calpain activation and Talin-1 degradation using ex-vivo precision-cut human kidney slices and in-vitro immortalised human podocytes. Notably, we found that Transforming-Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) activated Calpain-1 and proteolytically cleaved Talin-1 to generate distinct peptide fragments. These peptide fragments were of similar size and matched the degradation patterns observed in DBD kidneys. Talin-1 degradation was prevented in-vitro by Calpain-1 inhibition. Conclusions. Here, we provide initial evidence that DBD kidneys are susceptible to cytoskeletal protein degradation that impacts posttransplant kidney function. Subsequent studies should aim to further investigate the link between brain death and activation of proteolytic pathways exploring new therapeutic opportunities.