An adult Xp11.2 translocation renal carcinoma showing response to treatment with sunitinib.
Pwint TP., Macaulay V., Roberts ISD., Sullivan M., Protheroe A.
A rare variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a translocation involving Xp11.2 has become increasingly recognized as a separate entity in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) kidney carcinoma classification. These tumors predominantly affect children and young adults and tend to present with advanced stage disease. Although reported to be indolent in children, adult cases run a more aggressive course. Little is known about their natural history, prognosis and response to therapy. We report a case of Xp11 translocation renal cancer in a 33-year-old male patient who presented with widespread rapidly progressive metastatic disease involving extensive intra-thoracic lymph nodes, supra-clavicular, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lung nodules, and peritoneal mass. He had failed to respond to treatment with high dose interleukin 2, but showed a significant clinical response to treatment with the multikinase inhibitor sunitinib. CT scan performed after 3 cycles (18 weeks) of therapy revealed more than 65% reduction of measurable disease by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria, resolution of other assessable lesions, and a clinical benefit that lasted for over 13 months. But unfortunately, this was subsequently followed by a rapidly progressive course. The well-recognized clinical efficacy of multikinase inhibitors such as sunitinib and sorafenib is based on the outcomes in patients with clear cell histology. There is limited data on efficacy in non-clear cell RCC, but activity in translocation RCC has not been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of Xp11 translocation carcinoma to have demonstrated an objective durable response to sunitinib. It remains unclear how resistance to sunitinib develops, but the results to date support further evaluation of sunitinib in cases of translocation RCC.