With more marginal deceased donors affecting graft viability, there is a need for specific parameters to assess kidney graft quality at the time of organ procurement in the deceased donor. Recently, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was described as an early biomarker of renal proximal tubular damage. We assessed Kim-1 in a small animal brain death model as an early and noninvasive marker for donor-derived injury related to brain death and its sequelae, with subsequent confirmation in human donors. In rat kidney, real-time PCR revealed a 46-fold Kim-1 gene upregulation after 4 h of brain death. In situ hybridization showed proximal tubular Kim-1 localization, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Also, Luminex assay showed a 6.6-fold Kim-1 rise in urine after 4 h of brain death. In human donors, 2.5-fold kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) gene upregulation and 2-fold higher urine levels were found in donation after brain death (DBD) donors compared to living kidney donors. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary KIM-1 at brain death diagnosis was a positive predictor of recipient serum creatinine, 14 days (p < 0.001) and 1 year (p < 0.05) after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, we think that Kim-1 is a promising novel marker for the early, organ specific and noninvasive detection of brain death-induced donor kidney damage.
Am J Transplant
1752 - 1759
Animals, Biomarkers, Biopsy, Brain Death, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Graft Survival, Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Transplantation, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Male, Membrane Glycoproteins, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Rats, Rats, Inbred F344, Receptors, Virus, Regression Analysis, Tissue and Organ Procurement