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BACKGROUND: The TRANSLATE (TRANSrectal biopsy versus Local Anaesthetic Transperineal biopsy Evaluation) trial assesses the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two biopsy procedures in terms of detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). This article describes the statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the TRANSLATE randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS/DESIGN: TRANSLATE is a parallel, superiority, multicentre RCT. Biopsy-naïve men aged ≥ 18 years requiring a prostate biopsy for suspicion of possible PCa are randomised (computer-generated 1:1 allocation ratio) to one of two biopsy procedures: transrectal (TRUS) or local anaesthetic transperineal (LATP) biopsy. The primary outcome is the difference in detection rates of clinically significant PCa (defined as Gleason Grade Group ≥ 2, i.e. any Gleason pattern ≥ 4 disease) between the two biopsy procedures. Secondary outcome measures are th eProBE questionnaire (Perception Part and General Symptoms) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF, Domain A) scores, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) values, EQ-5D-5L scores, resource use, infection rates, complications, and serious adverse events. We describe in detail the sample size calculation, statistical models used for the analysis, handling of missing data, and planned sensitivity and subgroup analyses. This SAP was pre-specified, written and submitted without prior knowledge of the trial results. DISCUSSION: Publication of the TRANSLATE trial SAP aims to increase the transparency of the data analysis and reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias. Any deviations from the current SAP will be described and justified in the final study report and results publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN98159689, registered on 28 January 2021 and registered on the (NCT05179694) trials registry.

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Cancer biopsy, Cancer diagnosis, Prostate cancer, Randomised controlled trial, Statistical analysis plan, Humans, Male, Prostatic Neoplasms, Biopsy, Multicenter Studies as Topic, Anesthesia, Local, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Neoplasm Grading, Perineum, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Equivalence Trials as Topic, Prostate, Rectum, Predictive Value of Tests