Macrophage-tropic HIV induces and exploits dendritic cell chemotaxis
Lin CL., Sewell AK., Gao GF., Whelan KT., Phillips RE., Austyn JM.
Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) express the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)5, which promotes chemotaxis toward the CC chemokines regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β. By contrast, mature DCs downregulate CCR5 but upregulate CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, and as a result exhibit enhanced chemotaxis toward stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α. CCR5 and CXCR4 also function as coreceptors for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) and T cell-tropic (T-tropic) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, respectively. Here, we demonstrate chemotaxis of iDCs toward M-tropic (R5) but not T-tropic (X4) HIV-1. Furthermore, preexposure to M-tropic HIV-1 or its recombinant envelope protein prevents migration toward CCR5 ligands. The migration of iDCs toward M-tropic HIV-1 may enhance formation of DC-T cell syncytia, thus promoting viral production and destruction of both DC and T helper lymphocytes. Therefore, disturbance of DC chemotaxis by HIV-1 is likely to contribute to immunosuppression in primary infection and AIDS. In addition, migration of iDCs toward HIV-1 may aid the capture of R5 HIV-1 virions by the abundant DC cell surface protein DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN). HIV-1 bound to DC cell-specific DC-SIGN retains the ability to infect replication-permissive T cells in trans for several days. Consequently, recruitment of DC by HIV-1 could combine with the ability of DC-SIGN to capture and transmit the virus to T cells, and so facilitate dissemination of virus within an infected individual.