Levels of beta-microseminoprotein in blood and risk of prostate cancer in multiple populations.
Haiman CA., Stram DO., Vickers AJ., Wilkens LR., Braun K., Valtonen-André C., Peltola M., Pettersson K., Waters KM., Marchand LL., Kolonel LN., Henderson BE., Lilja H.
BACKGROUND: A common genetic variant (rs10993994) in the 5' region of the gene encoding β-microseminoprotein (MSP) is associated with circulating levels of MSP and prostate cancer risk. Whether MSP levels are predictive of prostate cancer risk has not been evaluated. METHODS: We investigated the prospective relationship between circulating plasma levels of MSP and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 1503 case subjects and 1503 control subjects among black, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and white men from the Multiethnic Cohort study. We also examined the ability of MSP to serve as a biomarker for discriminating prostate cancer case subjects from control subjects. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: In all racial and ethnic groups, men with lower MSP levels were at greater risk of developing prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.02 per one unit decrease in MSP, P < .001 in the prostate-specific antigen [PSA]-adjusted analysis). Compared with men in the highest decile of MSP, the multivariable PSA-adjusted odds ratio was 3.64 (95% confidence interval = 2.41 to 5.49) for men in the lowest decile. The positive association with lower MSP levels was observed consistently across racial and ethnic populations, by disease stage and Gleason score, for men with both high and low levels of PSA and across all genotype classes of rs10993994. However, we did not detect strong evidence of MSP levels in improving prostate cancer prediction beyond that of PSA. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of race and ethnicity or rs10993994 genotype, men with low blood levels of MSP have increased risk of prostate cancer.