Epidemiological study of provision of cholecystectomy in England from 2000 to 2009: retrospective analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics.
Sinha S., Hofman D., Stoker DL., Friend PJ., Poloniecki JD., Thompson MM., Holt PJE.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to report the trends in provision of cholecystectomy in the National Health System in England over the 9 year period from 2000 to 2009 and to determine the major risk factors associated with subsequent poor outcome. METHODS: The Hospital Episode Statistics database was interrogated to identify all cholecystectomy procedures for biliary stone disease in adult patients (>16 years). Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of in-patient death, 1 year death, conversion to open, major bile duct injury (BDI) requiring operative repair, and length of stay. RESULTS: A total of 418,214 cholecystectomy procedures for biliary stone disease were identified. Laparoscopic surgery was used in 348,311 (83.3%) cases and increased by 14.6% over the study period. The in-patient mortality rate (0.2%), 1 year mortality rate (1%), proportion of cases converted to open (5.0%), major BDI rate (0.4%), and mean length of stay (3 days) all decreased over the study period. 52,242 (12.5%) cases were carried out during an emergency admission and uptake has remained stable over the decade. Emergency surgery was more likely to be performed at high-volume centres (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.44) and specialist units (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.30-1.35). High-volume centres were more likely to complete emergency cases laparoscopically (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that patient- (male gender, increasing age, and comorbidity) and disease-specific (inflammatory pathology and emergency admission) factors rather than hospital institutional characteristics (annual cholecystectomy volume and presence of specialist surgical units) were associated with poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England has increased. This has been associated with improvements in outcomes such as mortality and length of stay. However, emergency cholecystectomy uptake remains sub-optimal and is more likely to be performed at high-volume or specialist hospitals without adverse outcomes. Further research into the routine provision of emergency cholecystectomy in England is needed in order to optimize patient outcomes.