Associations of folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and folate-pathway polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen velocity in men with localized prostate cancer.
Collin SM., Metcalfe C., Refsum H., Lewis SJ., Smith GD., Cox A., Davis M., Marsden G., Johnston C., Lane JA., Donovan JL., Neal DE., Hamdy FC., Smith AD., Martin RM.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B(12), holo-haptocorrin, and the folate-pathway single-nucleotide polymorphisms MTR 2756A>G and SHMT1 1420C>T have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether these and other elements of folate metabolism were associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity (PSAV) as a proxy measure of prostate cancer progression in men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: We measured plasma folate, B(12), holo-haptocorrin, holo-transcobalamin, total transcobalamin, and total homocysteine at diagnosis in 424 men (ages 45-70 years) with localized prostate cancer in a U.K.-wide population-based cohort. Thirteen folate-pathway single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped for 311 of these men. Postdiagnosis PSAV (continuous measure and with a threshold set a priori at 2 ng/mL/y) was estimated from repeat PSA measurements. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 2.5 (range, 0.8-5.6) years. Vitamin B(12), holo-haptocorrin, holo-transcobalamin, total transcobalamin, and total homocysteine were not associated with postdiagnosis PSAV. Folate was associated with an increased risk of PSAV >2 ng/mL/y [odds ratio (OR) per unit increase in log(e) concentration, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.98-2.51; P = 0.06]. MTRR 66A>G (rs1801394) was associated with a reduced risk (recessive model OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.97; P = 0.04), and SHMT1 1420C>T (rs1979277) with an increased risk (per-allele OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.93-2.37; P = 0.09) of PSAV >2 ng/mL/y. CONCLUSIONS: We found weak evidence that higher folate levels may be associated with faster progression of localized prostate cancer. IMPACT: Long-term follow-up is needed to test associations with metastases and mortality, and the observed genetic effects require replication.