Contributions of the Bone Microenvironment to Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Pathogenesis.
Gámez B., Edwards CM.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by a moderate increase in serum monoclonal protein (≤ 3 g/dL), an increase in bone marrow plasma cell infiltration (≤ 10%) and the absence of any end-organ damage. Although MGUS is considered a benign condition, evidence for clinical consequences is increasing. In this review, we examine the most recent evidence regarding MGUS manifestations and risks and present an overview of MGUS population studies as related to bone disease. Data reveals important MGUS-related bone alterations that may contribute to disease pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: MGUS patients present a rate of 1% per year risk of progression to the more aggressive multiple myeloma (MM) and therefore research has focused on the study of risk factors and the events leading to this progression. However, the exact health implications of MGUS itself and the mechanisms behind them remain unclear. It is now evident that the bone microenvironment plays a key role in hematologic cancers and other oncogenic processes leading to bone metastasis.