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© 2019 IEEE. One of the fundamental problems in neurology and neuroinformatics is whether the neural signals in human nerves systems are digital or analogue. This paper presents a novel neural signaling theory of Spike Frequency Modulation (SFM), which explains the nature of neural signals and their transformation in the nervous systems of the brain. Mathematical models of the unified signals of neural spikes across the sensory, associate and motor neurons are formally described. The time-divided mechanism for neural signal transmission and the space-divided mechanism for neural semantic representation in human nervous systems are rigorously explained. A set of experimental simulations demonstrates the SFM theory and the cognitive mechanisms of the neural pathways and networks. The SFM theory reveals the neurological and cognitive foundations of both natural and artificial neural networks for brain-inspired systems and engineering applications.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date





2220 - 2224