Biocompatibility of cardiopulmonary bypass: influence on blood compatibility of device type, mode of blood flow and duration of application.
Sundaram S., Courtney JM., Taggart DP., Tweddel AC., Martin W., McQuiston AM., Wheatley DJ., Lowe GD.
The biocompatibility of artificial organs is recognised as an area presenting difficulties in terms of the complexity of the situation. The nature of the blood response involving interactions of systems, pattern and extent of change, patient status and the influence of the whole device contribute to the complexity. Recognising these, the profile of the blood response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), with respect to type of device, mode of blood flow, duration of the procedure and patient status, has been evaluated by monitoring contact phase activation [Factor XII-like activity (FXIIA)], fibrinolytic activity [Fibrin degradation products (X-FDP's)], complement activation (C3a, C5a), leucocyte activation [Granulocyte elastase (GE)] and platelet and white cell imaging. FXIIA, X-FDP's, and GE rose gradually during CPB, with levels remaining elevated post-operatively for up to 48 h. In contrast, C3a levels rose sharply with no significant elevation in the post-operative period, while C5a did not show significant changes during bypass. The use of pulsatile perfusion resulted in lesser activation of the parameters, although these were significantly less only for GE. The alterations in FXIIA, X-FDP's, C3a and GE correlated positively with the duration of CPB, with this effect pronounced in the post-operative period for FXIIA, X-FDP's and GE. However, these changes had no apparent influence on clinical outcome and the majority of patients had uncomplicated post-operative recoveries. With respect to the use of bubble/membrane oxygenators, platelet and white cell deposition and the patterns of change for FXIIA and C3a were similar in the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)