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One in three adults worldwide has hypertension, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is a global demand for continuous and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurements that are convenient, easy to use, and more accurate than the currently available methods for detecting hypertension. This could easily be achieved through the integration of single-site photoplethysmography (PPG) readings into wearable devices, although improved reliability and an understanding of BP estimation accuracy are essential. This review paper focuses on understanding the features of PPG associated with BP and examines the development of this technology over the 2010-2019 period in terms of validation, sample size, diversity of subjects, and datasets used. Challenges and opportunities to move single-site PPG forward are also discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


J Clin Med

Publication Date





PPG signal, biomedical engineering, biomedical signal analysis, blood pressure measurement, digital health, digital medicine, hypertension assessment, hypertension diagnosis, photoplethysmogram, photoplethysmography, pulse oximetry, wearable devices, wearable technology