Population Study of Hand and Wrist Manifestations of Congenital Insensitivity to Pain.
Spiteri M., Mifsud M., Azzopardi T., Giele H.
Background: Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by insensitivity to painful stimuli due to absence of sensory and sympathetic post ganglionic neurons in the skin and skeletal system leading to lack of protective sensation and altered joint propioception. This study was performed to assess hand and wrist manifestations of patients with congenital insensitivity to pain in the Maltese Islands. Methods: Records of public and private hospitals were reviewed to identify patients suffering from this condition. A review of notes, patients, and imaging was performed. A Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was obtained to assess level of function. Results: Nine patients were identified. Mean age of diagnosis was 8.9 years. Interphalangeal joints were most commonly affected. Multiple spontaneous or posttraumatic fingertip ulceration occurred in 5 patients. Anhidrosis resulted in more protracted ulcers and infections, requiring amputation of distal and middle phalanges due to osteomyelitis. The wrist joint was less commonly involved and showed more complex joint involvement. Conclusion: The hand and wrist are involved in different ways, with fingertip ulceration leading to potential infection and osteomyelitis in the hand, whereas the wrist joint is involved in cases of increased axial loading and load transfer, such as following prolonged use of walking and mobility aids. The latter should be borne in mind during management of lower limb conditions. Hand care and hygiene is important in all patients, especially in cases of anhidrosis due to the increased rate of ulceration and osteomyelitis requiring surgical intervention. Despite the severity of the condition, patients report good overall function.