Markers of malnutrition after intestinal transplantation: the role of IGF-1 and calprotectin.
Vrakas G., O'Connor M., Matsou A., Macedo Arantes R., Friend P., Reddy S., Vaidya A.
The objective of this study is to valuate two biomarkers that may guide nutritional assessment during follow up after intestinal transplantation. We performed a retrospective study on prospectively collected data of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and effluent calprotectin in patients undergoing intestinal transplantation. Optimal nutritional status (ONS) was defined by using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). IGF-1 and calprotectin were correlated with ONS by Pearson correlation. Eighteen cadaveric intestinal transplants were performed over 1,650 days (median follow up 425 days, range 29-1,650 days). Mean IGF-1 and calprotectin were significantly associated with independent nutrition. Seven patients became malnourished on one or more occasions. During malnutrition the mean IGF-1 was 22 ± 14 ng/ml and calprotectin 1,597 ± 1,055 mcg/g. Mean weight during episodes of malnutrition changed from 64.77 ± 8.76 kg to 59.05 ± 8.5 kg (-8.9 ± 1.25%). Both IGF-1 and calprotectin negatively correlated with ONS (Pearson's r, -0.612, p = 0.014). Patients broadly aligned with three groups: nutritionally replete (normal IGF-1 and normal calprotectin), nutritionally equivocal (normal or low normal IGF-1 and high calprotectin), and malnourished (low IGF-1 and high calprotectin). Patients with low IGF-1 and high calprotectin may have a benign clinical presentation. However it is in their interests to have parenteral nutrition restarted pending further investigation.