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Over the last two decades, an additional and important role for B cells has been established in immune regulation. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that regulatory B cells (Breg) can prolong allograft survival in animal models and induce regulatory T cells. Operationally tolerant human kidney transplant recipients demonstrate B-cell associated gene signatures of immune tolerance, and novel therapeutic agents can induce Bregs in Phase I clinical trials in transplantation. Our rapidly expanding appreciation of this novel B cell subtype has made the road to clinical application a reality. Here, we outline several translational pathways by which Bregs could soon be introduced to the transplant clinic.

Original publication




Journal article


Transpl Int

Publication Date



B-cells, Immunosuppression, Immunosuppression Experimental, Novel immunosuppressants, T-cells, Tolerance induction, Tolerance strategies and mechanisms, macrophages