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Over the last two decades, an additional and important role for B cells has been established in immune regulation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that regulatory B cells (Breg) can prolong allograft survival in animal models and induce regulatory T cells. Operationally tolerant human kidney transplant recipients demonstrate B-cell-associated gene signatures of immune tolerance, and novel therapeutic agents can induce Bregs in phase I clinical trials in transplantation. Our rapidly expanding appreciation of this novel B-cell subtype has made the road to clinical application a reality. Here, we outline several translational pathways by which Bregs could soon be introduced to the transplant clinic.

Original publication




Journal article


Transpl Int

Publication Date





1353 - 1368


B cells, T cells, immunosuppression, immunosuppression experimental, macrophages, novel immunosuppressants, tolerance induction, tolerance strategies and mechanisms, Animals, B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Humans, Immune Tolerance, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Transplantation Tolerance, Transplantation, Homologous