Treating Ischemically Damaged Porcine Kidneys with Human Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells During Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion.
Pool MBF., Vos J., Eijken M., van Pel M., Reinders MEJ., Ploeg RJ., Hoogduijn MJ., Jespersen B., Leuvenink HGD., Moers C.
Pretransplant normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) of donor kidneys offers the unique opportunity to perform active interventions to an isolated renal graft before transplantation. There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could have a paracrine/endocrine regenerative effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to determine which cytokines are secreted by MSCs during NMP of a porcine kidney. Viable porcine kidneys and autologous whole blood were obtained from a slaughterhouse. Warm ischemia time was standardized at 20 min and subsequent hypothermic machine perfusion was performed during 2-3 h. Thereafter, kidneys were machine perfused at 37°C during 7 h. After 1 h of NMP, 0, 107 cultured human adipose tissue-derived MSCs, or 107 cultured bone marrow-derived MSCs were added (n = 5 per group). In a fourth experimental group, 7-h NMP was performed with 107 adipose tissue-derived MSCs, without a kidney in the circuit. Kidneys perfused with MSCs showed lower lactate dehydrogenase and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in comparison with the control group. Also, elevated levels of human hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 were found in the perfusate of the groups perfused with MSCs compared to the control groups. This study suggests that MSCs, in contact with an injured kidney during NMP, could lead to lower levels of injury markers and induce the release of immunomodulatory cytokines.