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The prostate cancer (PCa) field lacks clinically relevant, syngeneic mouse models which retain the tumour microenvironment observed in PCa patients. This study establishes a cell line from prostate tumour tissue derived from the Pten-/-/trp53-/- mouse, termed DVL3 which when subcutaneously implanted in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, forms tumours with distinct glandular morphology, strong cytokeratin 8 and androgen receptor expression, recapitulating high-risk localised human PCa. Compared to the commonly used TRAMP C1 model, generated with SV40 large T-antigen, DVL3 tumours are immunologically cold, with a lower proportion of CD8+ T-cells, and high proportion of immunosuppressive myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), thus resembling high-risk PCa. Furthermore, DVL3 tumours are responsive to fractionated RT, a standard treatment for localised and metastatic PCa, compared to the TRAMP C1 model. RNA-sequencing of irradiated DVL3 tumours identified upregulation of type-1 interferon and STING pathways, as well as transcripts associated with MDSCs. Upregulation of STING expression in tumour epithelium and the recruitment of MDSCs following irradiation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The DVL3 syngeneic model represents substantial progress in preclinical PCa modelling, displaying pathological, micro-environmental and treatment responses observed in molecular high-risk disease. Our study supports using this model for development and validation of treatments targeting PCa, especially novel immune therapeutic agents.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancers (Basel)

Publication Date





myeloid-derived suppressor cells, preclinical modelling, prostate cancer, radiotherapy, syngeneic model, tumour microenvironment