Is quercetin an alternative natural crosslinking agent to genipin for long-term dermal scaffolds implantation?
Greco KV., Francis L., Huang H., Ploeg R., Boccaccini AR., Ansari T.
As biocompatible matrices, porcine dermal scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to rapid degradation following implantation. This study compared the physical, chemical and biomechanical changes that occurred when genipin and quercetin were used to crosslink dermal scaffolds and to determine whether quercetin could be used as an alternative to genipin. Physicochemical changes in the collagen were assessed using spectroscopic methods [X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis]. The crosslinking reaction was evaluated by quantification of amino acids and the degree of this reaction by ninhydrin assay. Because the mechanical behaviour of the collagen matrices is highly influenced by crosslinking, the tensile strength of both sets of scaffolds was evaluated. The highest mechanical strength, stiffness, degree of crosslinking and changes in the packing features of collagen (measured by XRD) were achieved using genipin. Some of the results found in the quercetin-crosslinked scaffolds were possibly due to hydration and dehydration effects elicited by the solvents (phosphate-buffered saline or ethanol), as seen in the NMR results. In the quercetin-ethanol-crosslinked scaffolds, possible reorientation of the amino groups of the collagen molecule may have taken place. Therefore, depending on their proximity to the crosslinking reagent, different types and numbers of interactions may have occurred, inducing a higher crosslinking degree (as evidenced by the ninhydrin assay) and reduction in the free amino acids after reaction. Both crosslinking agents and solvents interfere in the physicochemical properties of collagen thereby inducing variations in the matrix structure. Quercetin-crosslinked scaffolds may have broader clinical application where a lower degree of crosslinking and stiffness is required. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.