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The chapter discusses the evidence hierarchy and the role of the different levels of evidence, for example randomized controlled trials, registry data and nonrandomized studies. We explain how to search for evidence, which search terms to use and the information resources that are available to identify evidence in organ transplantation. The design of randomized controlled trials is described including the sources of bias that can affect the internal validity of trials. Systematic reviews have the potential to provide level 1 evidence and the different stages of systematic reviews including a meta-analysis are presented. Lastly the role of sponsorship of trials is discussed.

Original publication





Book title

Kidney Transplantation - Principles and Practice

Publication Date



737 - 745