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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) excites neurons in the cortex, and neural activity can be simultaneously recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). However, TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) do not only reflect transcranial neural stimulation as they can be contaminated by artifacts. Over the last two decades, significant developments in EEG amplifiers, TMS-compatible technology, customized hardware and open source software have enabled researchers to develop approaches which can substantially reduce TMS-induced artifacts. In TMS-EEG experiments, various physiological and external occurrences have been identified and attempts have been made to minimize or remove them using online techniques. Despite these advances, technological issues and methodological constraints prevent straightforward recordings of early TEPs components. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review on both TMS-EEG artifacts and EEG technologies in the literature to-date. Our survey aims to provide an overview of research studies in this field over the last 40 years. We review TMS-EEG artifacts, their sources and their waveforms and present the state-of-the-art in EEG technologies and front-end characteristics. We also propose a synchronization toolbox for TMS-EEG laboratories. We then review subject preparation frameworks and online artifacts reduction maneuvers for improving data acquisition and conclude by outlining open challenges and future research directions in the field.

Original publication




Journal article


Sensors (Basel)

Publication Date





EEG amplifier and headset, TMS-EEG, TMS-EEG laboratory layout, TMS-Evoked potential (TEPs), TMS-artifacts, electroencephalography (EEG), online tricks for TMS artifact minimization, subject preparation, synchronization tools, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)