Intraoperative surgical strategy changes in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.
Rosenfeld ES., Trachiotis GD., Sparks AD., Napolitano MA., Lee KB., Wendt D., Kieser TM., Puskas JD., DiGiammarco G., Taggart DP.
OBJECTIVES: Factors such as more diffuse atherosclerosis, plaque instability and accelerated vascular calcification in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can potentially present intraoperative challenges in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures. We evaluated whether patients with chronic and ESRD experienced more surgical strategy changes and/or graft revisions than patients with normal renal function when undergoing CABG procedures according to a protocol for intraoperative high-frequency ultrasound and transit-time flow measurement (TTFM). METHODS: Outcomes of CABG for patients with chronic and ESRD and patients with normal renal function enrolled in the multicentre prospective REQUEST (REgistry for QUality assESsmenT with Ultrasound Imaging and TTFM in Cardiac Bypass Surgery) study were compared retrospectively. The primary end point was frequency of intraoperative surgical strategy changes. The secondary end point was post-protamine TTFM parameters. RESULTS: There were 95 patients with chronic and ESRD and 921 patients with normal renal function. Patients with chronic and ESRD undergoing CABG according to a protocol for intraoperative high-frequency ultrasound and TTFM had a higher rate of strategy changes overall [33.7% vs 24.3%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-2.48; P = 0.047] and greater revisions per graft (7.0% vs 3.4%; odds ratio = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.17-3.71; P = 0.008) compared to patients with normal renal function. Final post-protamine graft TTFM parameters were comparable between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic and ESRD undergoing CABG procedures with high-frequency ultrasound and TTFM experience more surgical strategy changes than patients with normal renal function while achieving comparable graft flow. Clinical trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02385344.