Phase-shift Perfluoropentane Nanoemulsions Enhance Pulsed High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation in an Isolated Perfused Liver System and Their Potential Value for Cancer Therapy.
Zhao L-Y., Chao X., Yang B-S., Wang G-G., Zou J-Z., Wu F.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether phase-shift perfluoropetane (PFP) nanoemulsions can enhance pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. METHODS: PFP was encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to form a nanometer-sized droplet (PLGA-PFP), which was added to an isolated perfused liver system. Meanwhile, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used as a control. The perfused liver was exposed to HIFU (150 W, t = 3/5/10 s) at various duty cycles (DCs). The ultrasound images, cavitation emissions, and temperature were recorded. Rabbits with subcutaneous VX2 tumors were exposed to HIFU (150 W) at various DCs with or without PLGA-PFP. After ablation, necrosis volume and energy efficiency factor were calculated. Pathologic characteristics were observed. RESULTS: Compared to the PBS control, PLGA-PFP nanoemulsions markedly enhanced HIFU-induced necrosis volume in both perfused livers and subcutaneous VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits (P