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Prostate cancer is a common cancer type in men, yet some of its traits are still under-explored. One reason for this is high molecular and morphological heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to gain new insights into the connection between morphological changes and underlying molecular patterns. We used artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze the morphology of seven hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained prostatectomy slides from a patient with multi-focal prostate cancer. We also paired the slides with spatially resolved expression for thousands of genes obtained by a novel spatial transcriptomics (ST) technique. As both spaces are highly dimensional, we focused on dimensionality reduction before seeking associations between them. Consequently, we extracted morphological features from H&E images using an ensemble of pre-trained convolutional neural networks and proposed a workflow for dimensionality reduction. To summarize the ST data into genetic profiles, we used a previously proposed factor analysis. We found that the regions were automatically defined, outlined by unsupervised clustering, associated with independent manual annotations, in some cases, finding further relevant subdivisions. The morphological patterns were also correlated with molecular profiles and could predict the spatial variation of individual genes. This novel approach enables flexible unsupervised studies relating morphological and genetic heterogeneity using AI to be carried out.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancers (Basel)

Publication Date





deep learning, morphological features, prostate cancer, spatial transcriptomics