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Previous studies have shown that tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements can identify cervical interstitial neoplasia with the same sensitivity and specificity as cervical smears. In the urinary bladder, the same technique yields significant differences (p < 0.05 at seven frequencies between 9.6 and 614 kHz) between normal and malignant urothelium, but is unable to classify individual measurements. Detailed histological examination demonstrates that inflammation and edema--both of which are common in abnormal urothelium--alter the impedance spectrum significantly in opposing directions. Consideration of morphological changes in abnormal urothelium suggests alternative measurement strategies.

Original publication




Journal article


IEEE Trans Med Imaging

Publication Date





708 - 710


Carcinoma in Situ, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell, Cystitis, Diagnosis, Differential, Edema, Electric Impedance, Humans, In Vitro Techniques, Mucous Membrane, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity, Tomography, Urinary Bladder Diseases, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms