Association of obesity with prostate cancer: a case-control study within the population-based PSA testing phase of the ProtecT study.
Dimitropoulou P., Martin RM., Turner EL., Lane JA., Gilbert R., Davis M., Donovan JL., Hamdy FC., Neal DE.
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been inconsistently linked to prostate cancer, mainly with mortality rather than incidence. Few large-scale studies exist assessing obesity in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-detected prostate cancer. METHODS: We used cases and stratum-matched controls from the population-based PSA-testing phase of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment study to examine the hypothesis that obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and with higher tumour stage and grade. In all, 2167 eligible cases and 11 638 randomly selected eligible controls with PSA values were recruited between 2001 and 2008. A maximum of 960 cases and 4156 controls had measurement data, and also complete data on age and family history, and were included in the final analysis. BMI was categorised as <25.0, 25.0-29.9, ≥ 30.0 in kg m(-2). RESULTS: Following adjustment for age and family history of prostate cancer, we found little evidence that BMI was associated with total prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR): 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.03; highest vs lowest tertile; P-trend 0.1). A weak inverse association was evident for low-grade (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.97; highest vs lowest tertile; P-trend 0.045) prostate cancer. We found no association of either waist circumference (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.12; highest vs lowest tertile) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.11; highest vs lowest tertile) with total prostate cancer, and in analyses stratified by disease stage (all P-trend>0.35) or grade (all P-trend>0.16). CONCLUSION: General adiposity, as measured by BMI, was associated with a decreased risk of low-grade PSA-detected prostate cancer. However, effects were small and the confidence intervals had limits very close to one. Abdominal obesity (as measured by WHR/waist circumference) was not associated with PSA-detected prostate cancer.