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The magnetic technique, consisting of a magnetic tracer and a handheld magnetometer, is a promising alternative technique for sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) and was shown to be non-inferior to the standard technique in terms of identification rates. In this study, injection characteristics (iron dose, dilution, time course and massaging) were evaluated to optimize magnetic tracer uptake in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in a rat hindleg model. 202 successful SLNDs were performed. Iron uptake in the SLN is proportional (10% utilization rate) to the injection dose between 20 and 200 μg, showing a plateau uptake of 80 μg in the SLN around 1000 μg injection. Linear regression showed that time had a higher impact than dilution, on the SLN iron uptake. Massaging showed no significant change in iron uptake. The amount of residual iron at the injection site was also proportional to the injection dose without any plateau. Time was a significant factor for wash-out of residual iron. From these results, preoperative injection may be advantageous for SLN detection as well as reduction in residual iron at the injection site by potential decrease in required injection dose.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancers (Basel)

Publication Date





magnetic technique, magnetic tracer, rat model, sentinel lymph node, sentinel lymph node dissection, super paramagnetic iron-oxide particles