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The purpose of this study is to assess the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphisms in the risk of developing bladder cancer and effect on tumour stage, grade and progression. In all, seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TNF were studied in 196 bladder cancer patients and 208 controls using a PCR-SSP genotyping technique. It was seen that there was a significant association of two polymorphisms in TNF with bladder cancer: the TNF+488A allele was found in 28.1% of patients compared with 14.9% of controls (P=0.0012). In addition, TNF-859T was found in 26.0% of patients compared with 14.4% of the controls (P=0.0036). The two loci were in tight linkage disequilibrium, that is, almost all the individuals having TNF+488A also had TNF-859T. Patients with the TNF+488A or TNF-859T were more likely to present with a moderately differentiated tumour than those patients without the uncommon allele. In all, 16.7% of patients with TNF+488A and 29.9% of patients without TNF+488A presented with a G1 tumour (P=0.015). A total of 14% of patients with TNF-859T and 30.5% of patients without TNF-859T presented with a G1 tumour (P=0.0043). There was no significant effect on time to first recurrence, stage progression or grade progression. In conclusion, a significant association between TNF polymorphisms TNF+488A and TNF-859T and risk of bladder cancer was detected in this study. Both these polymorphisms were associated with grade of tumour at presentation although there was no significant effect on subsequent tumour behaviour.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Cancer

Publication Date





1096 - 1101


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Case-Control Studies, DNA Primers, Female, Gene Frequency, Genotype, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Genetic, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, United Kingdom, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms