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The immune system presents a significant challenge to the success of clinical transplantation. For the majority of patients, treatment with a combination of immunosuppressive drugs are essential to prevent rejection. Tissue injury caused by organ retrieval and implantation triggers an innate immune response, which in turn, activates the adaptive immune system capable of responding to both major and minor histocompatibility antigens mismatched between the organ donor and the recipient. Advances in immunosuppressive strategies using small molecules and biological agents have revolutionized the management and outcomes of solid organ transplantation.

Original publication





Book title

Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice

Publication Date



1097 - 1114.e1