Promoter methylation and microsatellite mutation reveals the clonal relationship of multiple urothelial carcinomas with mutator phenotype
Stöhr R., Catto JW., Azzouzi A., Rehmann I., Feeley K., Meuth M., Hamdy F., Burger M., Hartmann A.
AIMS: The clonality of multiple urothelial carcinomas (UC) is subject to debate and affects treatment. Evidence derived from X-chromosome mosaicism and patterns of molecular alterations supports both a mono- and polyclonal relationship. In contrast to most UC, tumours with the mutator phenotype have frequent mutations in repetitive sequences (MSI) and promoter methylation. The aim of this study was to investigate the clonality of multifocal UC with MSI. METHODS: We have screened 400 UC for MSI and found it to occur in 1% of bladder and 15% of upper tract UC. Of these, 9 patients, whose tumours had MSI, developed or presented with multiple UC. A total of 32 UC (occurring over 0-6 years, 2-12 TCC per patient), 2 cases of CIS and 9 normal urothelial samples were screened for MSI at 17 loci and aberrant promoter methylation at 7 genes. RESULTS: In 8 of 9 patients, the pattern of microsatellite mutation and promoter methylation suggested that the multiple tumours had a clonal origin. Patterns of aberrant methylation in multiple tumours were more similar than microsatellite mutations, suggesting an earlier carcinogenic timing. MSI and promoter methylation were present in macroscopically normal urothelium from these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant promoter methylation occurs before microsatellite alteration in UC with mutator phenotype. The majority of recurrent UC with MSI are monoclonal in origin and macroscopically normal urothelium harbours multiple molecular abnormalities. Thus, at the time of apparently successful treatment, there is molecular evidence of residual tumour that subsequently develops into recurrent disease.