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Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) can affect the entire urinary tract including the kidneys, ureters (strictures), urinary bladder, prostate in addition to involving reproductive tracts. In modern day practice, both ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging play an important role in the radiological diagnosis of UGTB. The sequalae of untreated UGTB is morbid and can lead to end-stage renal failure, infertility, and life-threatening systemic infection. UGTB is less commonly observed in developed countries and may mimic other pathologies including malignancy. Thus, it is important that radiologists consider the differential diagnosis early, particularly individuals with risk factors such as travel to endemic regions, to allow optimal treatment and ensure best prognostic outcomes. UGTB can typically be managed by Infectious Disease clinicians with multidrug chemotherapy. We have presented a case of microbiologically proven extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) predominantly involving the genitourinary tract. The response to TB agents and lack of evidence of co-infection with another organism, might suggest this as the first published case of emphysematous tuberculous prostatitis. Emphysematous prostatitis is indicative of a gas-forming infection of the prostate, and is associated with abscess formation in the vast majority of case and is an easily identified radiological feature on CT. It is not a well-recognised feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and thus microbiological diagnosis should be sought to confirm the diagnosis.

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Journal article


BJR Case Rep

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