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Short-term outcomes in allotransplantation are excellent due to technical and pharmacological advances however, improvement in long-term outcomes has been limited. Recurrent episodes of acute cellular rejection, a primarily T cell-mediated response to transplanted tissue, have been implicated in the development of chronic allograft dysfunction and loss. Although it is well established that acute cellular rejection is primarily a CD4+ and CD8+ T cell mediated response, significant heterogeneity exists within these cell compartments. During immune responses, naïve (orthography) (orthography) CD4+ T cells are activated and subsequently differentiate into specific T helper subsets under the influence of the local cytokine milieu. These subsets have distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics, with reported differences in their contribution to rejection responses specifically. Of particular relevance are the regulatory subsets and their potential to promote tolerance of allografts. Unraveling the specific contributions of these cell subsets in the context of transplantation is complex, but may reveal new avenues of therapeutic intervention for the prevention of rejection.

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