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BACKGROUND: The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Animals, Chemokines, Cytokines, Embryonic Stem Cells, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Immunity, Innate, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans Transplantation, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Polymerase Chain Reaction