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The induction of tolerance in an adult immune system, although possible in animal models, remains an elusive goal in clinical medicine. The study of cytokine expression may help to define the requirements for reliably directing the immune system toward tolerance against either self antigens in autoimmune disease or foreign antigens in transplantation. Recent studies indicate a clear role for various cytokines in this increasingly complex process.

Original publication




Journal article


Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation

Publication Date





7 - 13