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Non-neuroadapted influenza virus confined to the brain parenchyma does not induce antigen-specific immunity. Nevertheless, infection in this site upregulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II expression and recruited lymphocytes to a perivascular compartment. T cells recovered from the brain had an activated/memory phenotype but did not respond to viral antigens. In contrast, T cells recovered from the brain after infection in a lateral cerebral ventricle, which is immunogenic, showed virus-specific responses. As with infectious virus, influenza virus-infected dendritic cells elicited virus-specific immunity when inoculated into the cerebrospinal fluid but not when inoculated into the brain parenchyma. Thus, inflammation and dendritic cell function were both uncoupled from immune priming in the microenvironment of the brain parenchyma and neither was sufficient to overcome immunological privilege.

Original publication




Journal article


J Gen Virol

Publication Date





1735 - 1743


Animals, Antigens, CD, Brain, Cerebral Ventricles, Dendritic Cells, Inflammation, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Orthomyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Spleen, T-Lymphocytes