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BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the physiological aspects of pig-to-primate renal xenotransplantation. METHODS: Use of organs transgenic for human decay accelerating factor has allowed assessment of the metabolic and hormonal functions of these xenografts. RESULTS: Porcine renal xenografts largely maintain plasma electrolyte homeostasis. An increase in proteinuria was detected that may result from graft injury. In contrast to allotransplantation a severe anaemia developed requiring recipient treatment with exogenous human erythropoietin. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience provides qualified encouragement for the likely physiological compatibility of pig and primate species, but identifies areas where a xenograft may not match the performance of an allograft.

Original publication




Journal article


Kidney Int

Publication Date





1592 - 1597


Anemia, Animals, Electrolytes, Erythropoietin, Hemoglobins, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Transplantation, Macaca fascicularis, Proteinuria, Recombinant Proteins, Swine, Transplantation, Heterologous