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Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) enables pretransplant assessment of high-risk donor livers. The VITTAL trial demonstrated that 71% of the currently discarded organs could be transplanted with 100% 90-day patient and graft survivals. Here, we report secondary end points and 5-year outcomes of this prospective, open-label, phase 2 adaptive single-arm study. The patient and graft survivals at 60 months were 82% and 72%, respectively. Four patients lost their graft due to nonanastomotic biliary strictures, one caused by hepatic artery thrombosis in a liver donated following brain death, and 3 in elderly livers donated after circulatory death (DCD), which all clinically manifested within 6 months after transplantation. There were no late graft losses for other reasons. All the 4 patients who died during the study follow-up had functioning grafts. Nonanastomotic biliary strictures developed in donated after circulatory death livers that failed to produce bile with pH >7.65 and bicarbonate levels >25 mmol/L. Histological assessment in these livers revealed high bile duct injury scores characterized by arterial medial necrosis. The quality of life at 6 months significantly improved in all but 4 patients suffering from nonanastomotic biliary strictures. This first report of long-term outcomes of high-risk livers assessed by normothermic machine perfusion demonstrated excellent 5-year survival without adverse effects in all organs functioning beyond 1 year ( number NCT02740608).

Original publication




Journal article


Liver Transpl

Publication Date





30 - 45


Humans, Aged, Liver Transplantation, Prospective Studies, Constriction, Pathologic, Quality of Life, Liver, Perfusion, Organ Preservation