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Renal ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is under development as an assessment tool for high-risk kidney grafts and as a means of achieving more physiologically accurate organ preservation. On-going hemolysis has been reported during NMP, as this technique relies on red blood cells for oxygen delivery. In this study, we confirm the occurrence of progressive hemolysis during 6-hour kidney NMP. NMP-associated erythrostasis in the glomeruli and in peri-glomerular vascular networks points to an interaction between the red blood cells and the graft. Continuous hemolysis resulted in prooxidative changes in the perfusate, which could be quenched by addition of fresh frozen plasma. In a cell-based system, this hemolysis induced redox stress and exhibited toxic effects at high concentrations. These findings highlight the need for a more refined oxygen carrier in the context of renal NMP.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Transplant

Publication Date



kidney transplantation/nephrology, normothermic machine perfusion, organ perfusion and preservation, oxygen carrier, red blood cells